Authors: J.M. Wang-Roveda, D. Nguyen, H.V. Nguyen
Affilation: MIAO LLC, United States
Pages: 56 - 59
Keywords: active reset, pixel differential amplifier, noninvasive glucose monitor, pulsed
25.8 million Americans (8.3% of the U.S. population) have Diabetes Mellitus with an annual increase rate of 1.3 million cases 1. There is 1.9 million new cases in 2010 1. Diabetes also results in kidney failure, lower limb amputations, blindness, heart disease and stroke 4. The cost of material used to manage diabetes is roughly $2,500 a patient for each year. Annual sales of meter and strips are $1.2 to 1.5 billion in the USA (3 billion worldwide in 2003) and are projected to reached $10 billion worldwide by 2014 2,3. Noninvasive blood glucose recording has been long envisioned to serve as an invaluable tool in prevented or slowed down the debilitating and costly micro‐vascular complications of diabetes. The Monte Carlo Pulsed Photoacoustic simulation of Figure 1 with the skin optic model in Figure 2 suggests we will need at least a signal to noise ratio of 10**4. This SNR adequates to resolve 1 mili-Mole (mM) glucose variation in a 1 mm path length aqueous solution as wanted by ISO DIS 15197 5. The needed pixel signal to noise ratio (SNR) is achieved with in pixel differential gain amplifier which provides the pixel conversion gain in mV/e-.