Temperature Controlled Dip-Pen Nanolithography
R.G. Sanedrin, N.A. Amro, J. Rendlen, M. Nelson
Keywords: dip-pen nanolithography, nanostructures, temperature control
Abstract:Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) has become a powerful tool in making sophisticated micron and nanoscale features of various molecules onto a variety of substrates. Despite significant advances, the influence of temperature on molecule transport for nanostructure fabrication has not been fully explored. We present a new development, which will greatly improve the DPN process, based on a heating and cooling stage derived on a Peltier module that can specifically control the substrate surface temperature with increments of 0.1 oC, and a temperature range from 4 oC to 80 oC. This approach, which is called Temperature Controlled DPN (TCDPN), allows and influences the writing of various molecules onto a variety of substrates under ambient environment, which could have not been achieved using conventional DPN systems. This work presents the fabrication of nanoscale features of small organic molecules with low and high melting point, such as alkanethiols and large polymeric molecules. Nanosized features as small as 35 nm can be fabricated routinely onto gold substrates using alkanethiols. With similar tip-surface contact time, nano and micro size features can be reproducibly generated with low and high temperatures, respectively. This well controlled system permits the fabrication of homogeneous micron, sub-micron, and nano-structures over large areas.